Orchitis refers to the inflammation of one or both testicles, often caused by infections or other underlying medical conditions. This condition can lead to significant discomfort and requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and prevention.

Causes of Orchitis

Orchitis can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Viral Infections: Viruses such as mumps, influenza, or sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia can lead to orchitis.
  • Bacterial Infections: Bacterial pathogens, such as E. coli or streptococcus, can infect the testicles, causing inflammation.
  • Trauma or Injury: Physical trauma or injury to the testicles can also result in orchitis.
  • Autoimmune Conditions: In rare cases, autoimmune disorders may contribute to orchitis.

Symptoms of Orchitis

Common symptoms of orchitis include:

  • Pain and Swelling: The affected testicle(s) may become swollen and painful to the touch.
  • Fever and Chills: Fever 100.4F to 102.2F or higher which may come with chill and little rigor. High fever or temparature usually accompaines orchitis with weakness and malaise. Dryness of mouth with foul smell.
  • Testicular Tenderness: The testicles may feel tender or sensitive, especially during movement or pressure.
  • Urinary Symptoms: Some individuals may experience pain or discomfort while urinating.

Diagnosis and Medical Evaluation

Diagnosing orchitis involves:

  • Physical Examination: A healthcare provider will perform a physical exam to assess the size, tenderness, and consistency of the testicles.
  • Ultrasound Imaging: Ultrasound imaging can help visualize the inflamed testicles and rule out other conditions. Pain and swelling occur during movement testicle ultrasound is diagnostic.
  • Blood Tests: Blood tests may be conducted to check for signs of infection or underlying medical issues. Serum amylase may be increased even without pancreatic involvment.

Prevention Tips for Orchitis

Preventive measures for orchitis include:

  • Safe Sexual Practices: Practicing safe sex and using condoms can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections that may lead to orchitis.
  • Hygiene: Maintaining good personal hygiene, especially in the genital area, can reduce the risk of bacterial infections that may cause orchitis.
  • Vaccinations: Vaccinations against mumps and other viral infections can lower the chances of orchitis caused by these viruses.
  • Prompt Treatment of Infections: Timely treatment of infections elsewhere in the body can prevent them from spreading to the testicles.

Impact of Orchitis on Fertility

Orchitis can affect fertility, especially if both testicles are involved or if complications arise. It is unlateral but when bilateral may produce sterility due to testicular atrophy. It’s essential to seek medical care promptly to minimize potential fertility issues.

Living with Orchitis: Coping Strategies

Coping with orchitis involves:

  • Pain Management Techniques: Using cold packs, taking pain medications as prescribed, and avoiding activities that worsen discomfort.
  • Emotional Support and Counseling: Dealing with the emotional impact of orchitis, especially if it affects fertility or long-term health, may require counseling or support groups.
  • Behavior: Prolonged cycling should be avoided and be careful not to injure the testicles in anyway.

Home Remedies for Testicular Pain

Experiencing testicular pain can be distressing, but there are several home remedies and self-care measures that may help alleviate discomfort:

Rest and Elevation

  • Rest: Avoid activities that may exacerbate the pain, such as strenuous exercise or heavy lifting.
  • Elevation: Elevate the scrotum with a soft pillow while lying down to reduce swelling and promote comfort.

Ice Packs

  • Applying a cold compress or ice pack wrapped in a cloth to the affected area can help reduce inflammation and numb the pain. Be sure to limit the application to 15-20 minutes at a time to avoid skin irritation.

Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can provide relief from testicular pain and reduce inflammation. Follow the dosage instructions on the medication package or consult a healthcare provider.

Supportive Undergarments

  • Wearing supportive underwear, such as briefs or athletic supporters, can provide added comfort and support to the scrotum, especially during physical activity.

Warm Bath

  • Taking a warm bath or shower can help relax the muscles and alleviate tension in the scrotal area, potentially reducing pain and discomfort.


  • Ensure adequate hydration by drinking plenty of water throughout the day, as dehydration can exacerbate pain and inflammation.

Avoiding Triggers

  • Identify and avoid potential triggers of testicular pain, such as tight clothing, prolonged sitting, or activities that put pressure on the scrotum.

When to Seek Medical Attention

While home remedies may provide temporary relief, it’s essential to seek medical attention if:

  • The pain persists or worsens despite home care measures.
  • There are accompanying symptoms such as fever, swelling, or discharge from the genitals.
  • The pain is severe or sudden in onset, especially after trauma or injury.

A healthcare provider can perform a thorough evaluation, determine the underlying cause of the testicular pain, and recommend appropriate treatment.

FAQs About Orchitis

Is orchitis contagious?

Orchitis caused by viral infections like mumps can be contagious. It’s important to take precautions to prevent the spread of such infections.

How bad is orchitis pain?

The severity of orchitis pain can vary from person to person and depends on factors such as the cause of orchitis, the extent of inflammation, and individual pain tolerance. Some people may experience mild to moderate discomfort, while others may have more intense pain that interferes with daily activities. Seeking prompt medical attention and adhering to treatment can help manage orchitis pain effectively.

How do you get rid of orchitis?

Orchitis is typically treated with a combination of antibiotics to address bacterial infections and pain management to alleviate discomfort. It’s crucial to follow your healthcare provider’s recommendations for medication and rest, as well as any additional treatments they prescribe based on the underlying cause of the orchitis.

What are the long-term complications of orchitis?

Long-term complications of orchitis may include chronic pain, abscess formation, and potential impact on fertility. Regular follow-ups with healthcare providers are essential.

Can orchitis lead to infertility?

Orchitis, especially if severe or left untreated, can affect fertility. Seeking medical care early and following treatment recommendations can help mitigate this risk.

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